California Indian History
    Primary Sources and Information, 1846-1879

    Did You Know?

    Did you know that during California’s Gold Rush and for decades afterwards:

    • Thousands of California Indians were killed by settlers?
    • The State of California financially supported local militias that were formed for the purpose of “defense” and engaged in killing California Indians?
    • Representatives of the United States federal government negotiated treaties with California tribes—but the U.S. Senate never ratified the treaties?
    • California Indian children were captured and taken by settlers to work as domestic servants or slaves?
    • California Indians, by law, could not testify against a white person in court?


    Purpose of this Website

    The California Indian History website makes available online primary sources authored or reported by non-Indian witnesses, and oftentimes perpetrators, who documented Euro-American violence against California Indigenous Peoples from the Gold Rush into the second half of the 19th century. The website also provides educational information, allowing anyone the ability to review, evaluate, and draw their own conclusions about the history experienced by California Indigenous Peoples.  Key documents and digital images include:

    • Annotated timelines listing state and federal government documents chronologically
    • Thousands of statewide California newspaper articles
    • State and federal correspondence and reports
    • Rosters that identify thousands of men on official muster rolls of militia units or independent companies kept by the State of California Adjutant General found in the State Archives


    Who Should Use This Website?

    Students, researchers, educators, policy makers, and history enthusiasts will find these resources useful for documenting this important history. California Indian Gold Rush history deserves to be included in the knowledge of U.S. history shared by all Americans and taught in our schools and universities.


    How to Cite Online Content

    Please cite materials used from this website appropriately. If you have used documents such as essays, timelines, or newspaper articles in a research paper or publication, guidelines for citing them are provided here.



    Video produced by the California Indian Museum and Cultural Center.  Developed in Partnership with Journeys to the Past, Inc. Conducted by Native Youth in Action, Tribal Youth Ambassadors Program.  Used with permission.

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