California Indian Involuntary Servitude, Apprenticeship, and Slavery Primary Sources – May 2019

Date

Citation – Primary Source

Event / Description

PDF_LINK_PHOTO_W_ICON

 

07/24/1847

“The Indians Again.” California Star, July 24, 1847, p. 2, col. 1. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“…we have tidings of an outrage committed by the whites upon a defenceless encampment of Indians, 60 miles north of New Helvetia…The Spaniards, having partaken of their [Indians] hospitatlity, commenced making prisoners of men, women, and children, and in securing them, some ten or twelve were killed – shot by the Spaniards in attempting to escape. Thirty were secured, principally women and children, tied together and driven to the settlements. Young children who were unable to proceed were murdered on the road. In one instance, an infant was taken from its mother, and killed in her presence, and that too, in the most brutal manner.”

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01/15/1848

“Sir.” California Star, January 15, 1848: p. 4, col. 2.

Editorial on subject of Indian relations. Recommends apprenticeship; published first in The Californian.

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01/29/1848

“[For the California Star — Mr. Editor.]” California Star, January 29, 1848: p. 3, col. 2.

For the California Star — Mr. Editor. Discusses “enslavement” of Indians through apprenticeship.

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02/26/1848

“[Cal. Star’s Sonoma Correspondent. Mr. Editor.]” California Star, February 26, 1848: p. 2, col. 3.

Cal. Star’s Sonoma Correspondent. Mr. Editor. Pacific’s response to Humanitas letter.; “[Cal. Star’s Sonoma Correspondent. Mr. Editor.]”

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03/15/1848

“Slavery in California.” The Californian, March 15, 1848: p. 2, col. 1-2.

 

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03/__/1850

California State Legislature, Senate Bill No. 54 entitled An Act Relative to the Protection, Punishment and Government of Indians; California Secretary of State, California State Archives, Original Bill File Chapter 133, Location: E6553, Box 1.

John Bidwell, a member of the first party of American emigrants to travel overland to California in 1841 (Bidwell-Bartleson Party), authored this document. In Bidwell’s absence, and at his request, the first President pro Tempore of the Senate, Ephraim Chamberlin introduced the bill for consideration on March 16, 1850. Bidwell’s proposal created a system of Justices of the Peace for Indians (elected by the Indians) to decide issues about land possession, various disputes between whites and Indians (and related punishments), and white custody and control of Indian minors. The bill explicitly permitted Indians and their descendents to reside at their “village sites where they…lived from time immemorial.” The bill continued to recognize the Indians’ rights to hunt, fish and gather seeds and acorns. The bill met the fate of being indefinitely postponed, and died in Senate chambers on March 30, 1850.

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04/17/1850

“Legislative Proceedings. Daily Alta California, April 17, 1850: p. 3, col 3. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“Mr. Brown reported a bill for the government and protection of Indians which was read the first and second times.”

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04/20/1850

“Legislative Proceedings.” Sacramento Transcript, April 20, 1850: p. 3, col. 2. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“Saturday, April 13th – Assembly, passed second reading…Bill to provide for the government and protection of Indians.”

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04/22/1850

An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. Chapter 133, 1850 Statutes of California.

This law was originally introduced as Assembly Bill No. 129, authored by Elam Brown, a delegate to the California Constitutional Convention of 1849 and elected to represent San Jose in the Assembly. While the final law resembles concepts in John Bidwell’s bill, significant provisions were left out of the version that Governor Peter Burnett signed, including the continued right to gather acorns.

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04/23/1850

“Legislative Proceedings.” Sacramento Transcript, April 23, 1850: p. 4, cols. 1-2. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“Tuesday, April 16, 1850: Senate – Bills read first time…For the government and protection of Indians.. Assembly – Read third time and passed..Bill to provide for the government and protection of indians.”

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04/26/1850

“Legislative Proceedings.” San Francisco Daily Alta California, April 26, 1850: p. 3, col. 2.

“In the Senate… the bill concerning the limitations was read the third time and passed; also the bill for the protection and government of Indians…”

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07/02/1850

“Liberality.” San Francisco Daily Alta California, July 2, 1850: p. 2, col. 1. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“The Legislature displayed its wisdom in some other laws it passed by it. The 6th section of the Act for the Government and Protection of the Indians…furnish luminous evidence of the clearness of the heads which fixed the compensation of a Juror in a Justice’s Court at one dollar per day.”

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08/14/1850

For the Transcript, Sacramento City.” Sacramento Transcript, August 14, 1850: p. 2, col. 5.

Take 27 Indian women and children prisoners

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12/20/1850

“The Indians of Oregon.” Sacramento Transcript, December 20, 1850: p. 2, col. 6. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

Governor of Oregon proposes Legislature pass an “act authorizing the apprenticing of Indian children to useful trades and occupations…”

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01/14/1851

“Governor’s Message.” Marysville Herald, January 14, 1851: p. 2, col. 1-2.

 

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04/05/1851

“The Indians.” Marysville Daily Appeal: April 5, 1851, p. 2, col. 1.

Apprentice [suggests law to bind out Indian children to farmers]

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07/17/1851

“A Trip to the Mountains…Fight with the Indians.” Marysville Daily Appeal, July 17, 1851, p. 2, col. 3-4.

 

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01/23/1852

“Legislative Intelligence.” San Francisco Daily Alta California, January 23, 1852: p.3, col. 2. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“Senate…Mr. Warner gave notice that he would introduce a bill providing for the government and protection of Indians and repeal the act of 1850.”

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01/23/1852

“California Legislature.” Sacramento Daily Union, January 23, 1852: p. 2, col. 2. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“Senate, Sacramento, Jan 22, 1852…Mr. Warner gave notice of his intention to introduce a bill to provide for the government and protection of Indians.”

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03/17/1852

“California Legislature.” Sacramento Daily Union, March 17, 1852: p. 2, col. 3. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“March 16, 1852…The Senate was called to order…Mr. Cook from the Judiciary Committee, to which was referred the bill for the government of Indians, reported a substitute to the same, entitled. An Act amendatory of an act for the government and protection of Indians. The bill was made a special order for Monday next.”

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08/13/1852

“California Indians.” Los Angeles Star, August 13, 1852: p. 2, col. 3. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

 

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12/15/1852

“Cruel Treatment of Indians in Contra Costa.” San Francisco Herald, December 15, 1852: p. 2, col. 3

No copy, citation only

 

01/28/1853

“California Legislature.” Sacramento Daily Union, January 28, 1853, p. 2, col. 4. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“Vallejo, Jan. 26th …Assembly…Mr. McFarland gave notice that he would, at an early day, introduce an act for the protection of Indians.”

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03/05/1853

“Exciting News from Tehama – Indian Thefts- Terrible Vengeance of the Whites.” Sacramento Daily Union, March 5, 1853, p. 2, col. 3. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

Moon’s Ranch; Thomes; Toombs; Breckenridge; Carter; Capt. George Rose

“Capt. Rose took one child. Mr. Lattimer another, and the others were disposed of in the same charitable manner among the party.”

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04/09/1853

“Saturday Morning….” San Francisco Daily Alta California, April 9, 1853: p. 2, col. 1. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“It has been attempted at various times to introduce negro, Asiatic, Kanaka, and every other kind of labor that could be had at a cheaper rate than that of American citizens. The last thing we have heard of in this line appeared in the form of a bill introduced in the Assembly yesterday, the purport of which was to reduce the Indians to a state of slavery. The bill is very long and provides to have the Indians bound out for any number of years to serve such white men as will give the required security for their maintenance and support. There are various provisions and penalties in the bill, but they do not hide the fact that the effect of its passage will be to render the miserable and degraded remnant of an unhappy race …the servants and dependents of their exterminators. An act of this kind will surely sound badly in history.”

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09/13/1854

“Kidnapping.” Sacramento Daily Union, September 13, 1854: p. 2, col. 5. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

“A Mexican named Marcus Vaca was arrested yesterday on a charge of having lately kidnapped several Indian children, which he disposed of in this city [Sacramento].”

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09/14/1854

Kidnapping.” Sacramento Daily Union, September 14, 1854: p. 2, col. 5. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

 

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09/21/1854

“Kidnapping Case at Sacramento; Indian Murders and Hanging.” Los Angeles Star, September 21, 1854: p. 2, col. 3. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

 

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09/23/1854

“Indian Murder.” Weekly Humboldt Times, September 23, 1854: p. 2, col. 4.

 

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10/02/1854

“Abduction of Aboriginals.” Sacramento Daily Union, October 2, 1854: p. 2, col. 2.California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

 

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10/02/1854

“Abducting Indian Children.” Alta California, October 2, 1854: p. 2, col. 1.

 

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10/07/1854

“Abducting Indian Children.” Weekly Alta California, October 7, 1854: p. 4, col. 6. California Digital Newspaper Collection, Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California, Riverside, http://cdnc.ucr.edu/.

 

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04/07/1855

“Lo, the Poor Indian!” Alta California, April 7, 1855: p. 2, col. 1.

 

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05/05/1855

“Kidnapping Indians.” Weekly Humboldt Times, May 5, 1855, p. 1. col. 6.

 

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09/01/1855

“Atrocity.” Petaluma Weekly Journal and Sonoma County Advocate, September 1, 1855, p. 2, col.6.

 

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08/29/1856

“Indian Agent Shot.” Sonoma County Journal, August 29, 1856, p. 2, col. 4.

 

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05/27/1857

“Indian Gifts.” Sacramento Daily Union, May 20, 1857, p. 2, col. 5.

Adult Indians killed by militia, “a number of children presented to different families”

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06/29/1857

“The Indians in California.” San Francisco Evening Bulletin, June 29, 1857 p. 2, col. 1.

 

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08/22/1857

“Oppression of Diggers.” Weekly Humboldt Times, August 22, 1857, p. 2, col. 3.

 

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01/09/1858

“Indian Women — Their Treatment.” Trinity Weekly Journal, January 9, 1858: p. 2, col. 5.

 

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01/17/1858

“Cruelty to Squaws.” Alta California, January 17, 1858, p. 1, col. 3.

 

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03/20/1858

“Legislature Interfering with ‘Domestic Institutions.’” Weekly Humboldt Times, March 20, 1858, p. 2, col. 3.

 

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11/06/1858

Charles E. Mix, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, November 6, 1858, Sen. Exec. Docs., 35 Cong., 2 Sess., Vol. 1, Doc. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 353-373 (974).

Discusses apprenticeship system and reservations, p. 359 and 366.

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12/04/1858

“Brief References.” Trinity Weekly Journal, December 4, 1858: p.1, col. 5.

Placer Democrat reports that in Mariposa county Indians auction off when unable to pay fine.

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04/23/1859

“Wholesale Killing.” Weekly Humboldt Times, April 23, 1859, p. 3, col. 1.

 

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01/14/1860

Folder F3753:412, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Letter from Lieutenant Dillon to Major W.W. Mackall, Assistant Adjutant General, Headquarters, Department of Pacific, stating he doesn’t want to leave Round Valley while settlers are allowed to continue to harass Indians. Says why no investigation of trespass and damage of government property. Indian women are taken by force frequently. Written in Round Valley, January 14, 1860.

 

02/04/1860

“Indian Law.” Weekly Humboldt Times, February 4, 1860: p. 2, col. 5.

Law proposed in Legislature by Burson of Humboldt county authorizing all Indians captured to be apprenticed to families; article critical of proposed legislation.

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02/14/1860

“Topic of the Day” [Indian Affairs]. San Francisco Daily Herald, February 14, 1860, p. 2, col. 1.

 

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02/21/1860

Folder F3753:433, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Deposition of Wm. Robertson before special committee of Indian Affairs that Indians had killed lots of cattle and horses be managed for Judge Hastings. Said was member of Jarboe’s company but spent time running company, never attacked Indians or killed any. Saw prisoners. Never heard of anyone taking children and selling them. Never saw anything. Written in Ukiah, February 21, 1860.

 

02/22/1860

Folder F3753:436, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Wm. Frazier deposes before investigation committee on Indian Affairs to effect he and others from Long Valley had gone on forays against rancherias and killed men, women, and children indiscriminately. Few prisoners were women – claims Indians had plenty to eat but lived on beef and horse meat. Admits killing women on several occasions. Says few children because they are caught and sold. Written in Ukiah, February 22, 1860.

 

02/25/1860

“The State to Control Indian Affairs.” The Placer Herald, February 25, 1860: p. 2, col. 4.

Advocates apprenticing young male and female Indians, putting Elders on reservations.

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02/27/1860

Folder F3753:455, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Deposition of George Rees, overseer Nome Cult, before investigating committee on Indian Affairs to effect that little or no stock stealing, no need for more forces than U.S. Army there, whites causing trouble. Women stealing occurred, from locked building and also of young men with usable skills. Wouldn’t return. George Henley, Wilsey’s, Storm’s, Taycock offenders. Whites tear up fences, have driven off stock. Written in Round Valley, February 27, 1860.

 

02/27/1860

Folder F3753:459, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Deposition of George W. Henley before investigating committee on Indian Affairs to effect he had lost stock to Indians, had helped chastise them, had sold out Round Valley interests thru fear of Indian depredations. Claimed supplied Jarboe’s company because no one else would. Says U.S. Army are bad. Says Bland good, never did any harm. Says Rees tried to steal his Indian boy. Written in Round Valley, February 27, 1860.

 

02/28/1860

Folder F3753:461, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Further deposition of S.P. Storms before committee investigating Indian Affairs to effect that he owned five or six Indians and had fed and clothed them but that Agent Geiger and Lieutenant Dillon had tried to make Indians go to reservation which they didn’t wish to do. Said he told Dillon he would resist his taking Indians by force if necessary. Deposition by Baurne and Laycock back Storm’s. Written in Round Valley, February 28, 1860.

 

02/28/1860

Folder F3753:462, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Deposition of Lawrence Battailes, reservation employee to investigating committee on Indian Affairs. Swears Indians don’t steal stock in Round Valley but eat dead cattle that died from natural causes. Says whites have killed 300-400 Indians since 1858, no white hurt. Some Indians taken as servants – saw none sold. Written in Round Valley, February 28, 1860.

 

02/28/1860

Folder F3753:465, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Deposition of Chas. McLane before investigating committee on Indian Affairs to effect Indians kill stock, settlers need protection. He had been on several Indian hunts, only saw women killed once, by accident. Said John Bland was arrested by Major Johnson for whipping Indian who stole women from his house where Bland kept her for two months. Written in Round Valley, February 28, 1860.

 

02/28/1860

Folder F3753:466, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Deposition of Dr. George W. Jeffriss, physician at Nome Cult Indian Farm before investigating committee on Indian Affairs to effect he thinks most trespasses are by whites not Indians. Says whites hunt Indians down attributes natural losses to them. Says U.S. Army does best can, whites tear down fences, steal women who are locked up, kill without provocation. Written at Nome Cult Indian Farm, February 28, 1860.

 

02/28/1860

Folder F3753:467, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Deposition of Isaac W. Shannon before investigating committee on Indian Affairs to effect only had lost one or two to reservation. Indians liked Colonel Henley for remuner and Henley said to get satisfaction from Indians. Not afraid to travel alone in mountains, most claims exaggerated. Tells of drunken party trying to take his Indians on January 1, 1859. Hard man but better than most in Round Valley. Written at Nome Cult Indian Farm, February 28, 1860.

 

02/28/1860

Folder F3753:468, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Deposition of Benjamin Arthur before investigating committee on Indian Affairs to effect that Indians always stole stock in winter and settlers always killed Indians in winter. Casually mentions 300 Indians dying of exposure when moved thru snow to reservation in 1856-57. Says Jarboe killed 300 and took 500 POWS. Relates shooting wounded boy and killing him as he lay on ground helpless. Written at Nome Cult Indian Farm, February 28, 1860.

 

02/29/1860

Folder F3753:470, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Deposition of men who chased Indians after claiming to have found remains of a cow. Attacked rancheria and killed two, wounded three (one woman), captured child. Deposition forwarded to Commission on Mendocino War. Written in Eden Valley, February 29, 1860.

 

03/02/1860

Folder F3753:471, Military Department. Adjutant General. Indian War Papers, F3753, California State Archives.

No copy, citation only

Deposition of W.T. Scott, stockman Round Valley, to Wm. Claxson, Member, Assembly Commission on Indian Affairs, concerning reasons for Indian actions in Round Valley. Strong indictment of Hastings, Jarboe, et al, on reasons for Indian war and their dealings with California government. Written in Cloverdale, Sonoma County, March 2, 1860.

 

03/17/1860

“The Standard on the Indians.” Alta California, March 17, 1860, p. 1. col. 4.

“The editor of the Sacramento Standard, speaking of the Indians of the State says: The most humane disposition that could be made of them, probably, to reduce them to a mild system of servitude. Call them slaves, coolies or apprentices—it is all the same; supply them with Christian masters and make them Christian servants.”

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06/01/1860

“Atrocities by White Men on Indians in Humboldt County-Record of a Babykiller.” San Francisco Evening Bulletin, June 1, 1860, p. 2, col. 3.

 

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06/20/1860

“Indian Apprentices.” Weekly Humboldt Times, June 20, 1860, p. 2, col. 3.

 

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07/31/1860

“Apprenticing Indians.” Sacramento Daily Union, July 31, 1860, p. 2, col. 5.

Slavery – synopsis of 1860 amendments to law and history of legislation.

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11/10/1860

“Employing Indians.” Weekly Humboldt Times, November 10, 1860, p. 2, col. 2.

 

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12/22/1860

“Ho There!” Weekly Humboldt Times, December 22, 1860, p. 2, col.1-2.

Kidnapping Indian children

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01/04/1861

“Wholesale Kidnapping.” Marysville Daily Appeal, January 4, 1861, p. 2, col. 3.

 

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02/04/1861

“Indenturing Indians-A Nice System of Slavery.” Sacramento Daily Union, February 4, 1861, p. 4. col. 3.

 

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02/23/1861

“Apprenticing Indians.” Weekly Humboldt Times, February 23, 1861, p. 3, col. 1.

 

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03/02/1861

“Commitment and Discharge.” Weekly Humboldt Times, March 2, 1861: p. 3, col. 1.

Court handed Indian boy over to citizen who took him to San Francisco

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03/02/1861

“Apprenticing Indians.” San Francisco Evening Bulletin, March 2, 1861, p. 2, col. 3.

V.E. Geiger has 80 Indians apprenticed to him to take to Washoe

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03/09/1861

“Apprenticing Indians.” Weekly Humboldt Times, March 9, 1861, p. 2, col. 2.

Samuel D. Ross “trading in Indian” children; has more than a dozen applications from upstanding citizens for young Indians to “apprentice” them; Ross has taken “all precautions to this business in a just and legal way.”

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03/22/1861

“Indian Servitude.” Marysville Daily Appeal, March 22, 1861, p. 2, col. 1.

 

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03/27/1861

“Kidnapping Indian Children in Mendocino Co.” San Francisco Bulletin, March 27, 1861, p. 1, col. 1.

G.H. Woodman took Indian children from the “Rispoiner tribe, from Long Valley to the lower valleys but done by request and consent of their relatives.” Certificate signed by 44 residents of Long Valley “corroborate Mr. Woodman’s statement…”

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06/22/1861

“Outrageous.” Weekly Humboldt Times, June 22, 1861, p. 3, col. 1.

Indian boy, 15 years old, servant since infancy, to a Mr. Swain of Elk River was murdered

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07/15/1861

Geo. M. Hanson to William P. Dole, July 15, 1861, document no. 56 of Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Sen. Exec. Docs., 37 Cong., 2 Sess., Vol. 1, Doc. 1, pp. 756-761 (1117).

Refers to kidnapping and indenture, troops at Round Valley and Klamath reservation.

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09/21/1861

“Strayed or Stolen.” Weekly Humboldt Times, September 21, 1861, p. 3, col.2.

 

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10/05/1861

“Enslaving the California Indians.” Weekly Humboldt Times, October 5, 1861, p. 2, col.2-3.

 

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10/12/1861

“The Law for Indentures of Indians.” Weekly Humboldt Times, October 12, 1861, p. 2, col. 1.

 

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10/19/1861

“From the War.” Weekly Humboldt Times, October 19, 1861: p. 3, col. 2.

Two Indian men killed, 11 Indian women and children taken prisoner

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10/19/1861

“Indian Meeting.” Weekly Humboldt Times, October 19, 1861: p. 3, col. 3.

Meeting held in Hydesville “to ascertain if it be the wish of the people of the county to get rid of the domesticate Indians, particularly those who have Indians bound to them. Also to provide for prisoners and attend to the removal of all vagrant natives.”

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10/19/1861

“Public Meetings.” Weekly Humboldt Times, October 19, 1861: p. 2, col. 4 & 5.

 

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10/21/1861

“The Business of Kidnapping Indian Children.” Alta California, October 21, 1861, p.2, col. 1.

 

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11/02/1861

“Kidnapping.” Weekly Humboldt Times, November 2, 1861, p. 2, col. 4.

 

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11/02/1861

“Take Notice.” Weekly Humboldt Times, November 2, 1861, p. 3, col. 3.

Runaway Indian apprentice in Bucksport

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11/09/1861

“Public Meeting.” Weekly Humboldt Times, November 9, 1861: p. 2, col. 2.

 

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11/14/1861

“$50 Reward.” Marysville Daily Appeal, November 14, 1861, p. 2, col. 4.

 

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11/16/1861

“Gathering Indians.” Weekly Humboldt Times, November 16, 1861: p. 3, col. 2.

 

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11/23/1861

“Battle with Indians! Charley Huestis Killed!; Pets.” Weekly Humboldt Times, November 23, 1861: p. 3, col. 2.

 

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11/27/1861

William P. Dole, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, November 27, 1861, Sen. Exec. Docs., 37 Cong., 2 Sess., Vol. 1, Doc. 1, pp. 624-650 (1117).

Relevant California items on pgs. 640-641, discusses indentures.

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12/07/1861

“The Indian Side of a War Question.” Marysville Daily Appeal, December 7, 1861, p. 2, col. 2.

 

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12/31/1861

Geo. M. Hanson to William P. Dole, December 31, 1861, document no. 63 of Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, H. Exec. Docs., 37 Cong., 3 Sess., Vol. 2, Doc. 1, Pt. 2, pp. 457-460 (1157).

Refers to loss of crops, efforts to suppress Indians, slavery, kidnapping and repeal of indenture law.

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02/22/1862

“Apprenticing Indians.” The Humboldt Times, February 22, 1862: p. 2, col. 2.

 

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04/12/1862

“Kidnapping Indians.” Nevada Democrat, April 12, 1862, p.2, col. 2.

 

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04/14/1862

“Indian Slavery.” Alta California, April 14, 1862, p. 1, col. 2.

 

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05/05/1862

“Indian Troubles North – Particulars of a Fight.” Sacramento Daily Union, May 5, 1862, p. 4, col. 7.

 

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05/10/1862

“Kidnapping Indians.” Sacramento Daily Bee, May 10, 1862, p. 4, col. 1.

 

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10/05/1862

“Selling Indian Children.” Alta California, October 5, 1862, p. 2, col. 1.

 

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01/24/1863

“Martial Law in Round Valley.” Alta California, January 24, 1863, p. 2, col. 2.

 

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03/13/1863

“Kidnapping Indian Children.” Sacramento Daily Union, March 13, 1863, p. 2, col. 3.

 

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03/28/1863

“Alleged Kidnapping in Mendocino” Sacramento Daily Union, March 26, 1863, p. 2, col. 2.

 

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03/28/1863

“Alleged Kidnapping in Mendocino.” Napa County Reporter, March 28, 1863, p. 3, col. 1.

 

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08/19/1865

“Outrage in Mendocino County.” Sacramento Daily Union, August 19, 1865, p. 2, col. 1.

 

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